Contact Jackie Barbieri (317) 507-1991, firstname.lastname@example.org
Moving forward I will continue to share training information on three main topics: Detection training, Directional training and Retriever training.
This post is an an excerpt from the intro to directional training course
The Summary of the report:
” Psychologists have provided strong evidence that a certain region of the brain plays a critical role in memory recall. The research also shows for the first time that using an electrical current to stimulate that region, the left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex, improves people’s ability to retrieve memories. “
For the rest of the story
This is the second part of this series. Click here to read the first part.
Shaping response to odor
Now when your dog finds target odor pause do not pay right away. If she stays with her nose in the tube mark and pay this. Many dogs will leave the odor when you delay reward, either continuing to search or more typically heading toward the feeder. Do not mark as she is leaving for fear that you will miss an opportunity to reward on odor or for fear that she will might take it as a negative that she did not get paid. If you mark when she is leaving you are rewarding her for walking away from the odor. Be patient, when your dog leaves odor just wait, she will return. When she does, pay as soon as she puts her head in the tube.
Soon, your dog will pause in odor and you can pay this pause. You can begin to reach in and pay in odor through the tube. If you dog knows a “continue on” marker use it as you step up. If your dog moves toward you when you are moving to pay freeze or withdraw. She must be stationary, with her nose in the tube for you to move up and pay.
You can pay an individual find several times, pausing and waiting for her to freeze each time before paying.
Increase the time you ask her to hold using variable intervals. Vary whether you pay her with the Mannersminder or pay through the tube. She will learn that she must find the target odor and stay there to make you pay her.
Finding target odor is the only thing that has ever brought reward in this game. Therefore, very few dogs will stay on a non-target tube. If your dog chooses to wait at a non-target tube just wait her out. She will learn that the non-targets don’t pay.
Learn to ignore hander misdirection
When your dog is finding and staying on odor begin to teach her to ignore your direction that would draw her away from target odor. Wait for her to find target and pause there. When she does, call her away to another tube, even with food in your hand. When she leaves the target simply withdraw and wait for her to return to the target. Pay her when she does. It will not take many of these to teach her not to leave the odor once she finds it. Likewise, you can hold the reward near her away from any tube and call her away. If she leaves the target tube withdraw and wait for her to return to the target before paying her through the tube.
She will learn to stay on odor and not to look to you for help in detection work. This work plus training on blind hides when you do operational hides will make her a stronger detection dog.
While you can’t fully train a detection dog using any system of discrete presentations, with this approach you can give your dog a solid foundation in detection work. You will need to work operational hides and do scenario-based training to finish your dog’s education.
But you can always revisit the scent tube work to introduce new odors, to work on distractions, or to polish up a final stop for response that has started to get sloppy.
Researchers use medical imaging to map areas involved in recalling learned information while we slumber
Date:May 15, 2019 Source:Concordia UniversitySummary:New research brings us closer to understanding how learned information turns into reliable memories during sleep.
For the full article click the link:
1. the dog is not alerting on the target odor
2. she is alerting on things other than target odor
A rather simplistic view I know but let’s start to unpack how that could be and what we can do to avoid both problems from the start.
This will be the first of several posts presenting one approach to imprinting tartget odor.
A trained detection canine must be discriminate and selective. She must reliably identify target odor and selectively respond only to target odors. She must rely on her sense of smell and ignore what she sees and hears. My desired end state is a dog that searches independently yet will accept direction to a search area or for detailing.
There are many ways to accomplish these goals. This approach using scent tubes and a Manners Minder works well for starting puppies and adult dogs alike. The Manners Minder pulls the dog away from you, giving you time to move the tubes around.
I. Imprint Odor
- Learn to ignore controls and distractions
2. Shaping response to odor
- Address non-productive responses
- Learn to ignore handler misdirection
- 4 scent tubes
- target odor sample
- control and distractions odor samples
- Manners Minder
- one hungry dog.
For the initial sessions work in a controlled environment with as few distractions as possible so you don’t have to compete for your dog’s attention. An empty room is ideal.
Before you start
If your dog is not familiar with the Manners Minder spend a session or two and introduce her to it before using it in training.
To introduce the Manners Minder, start with the machine turned on, loaded with food, and the “Volume” selection set on “Off’. You can use your dog’s regular ration or a treat like Biljac Little Jacs. Run the machine with your food a few times before training to see how the machine handles your food. Some food moves through the machine better than others. Large kibble does not work well.
Place some food on the Manners Minder tray. Allow your dog to eat the food. Do this several times.
Now, wait for your dog to move away from the feeder and then push the “Dispense” button. The Manners Minder will dispense food while you hold the button down. Don’t run the feeder with your dog at the tray until she has eaten several times from the tray.
When your dog is comfortable with the noise the feeder makes set your “Volume” selection to “Low’. The Manners Minder will “beep” each time before dispensing food. This beep will become your reward marker. Wait for your dog to move away from the feeder, press the button to mark and feed. Repeat this until she shows by her immediate and excited response to the marker that she knows the “beep” means the treats are coming. Now you are ready to use the feeder in training.
Pre-load your scent tubes. One with target odor, one with a distraction and one with a control; leave one empty. For your control use whatever packaging you keep your target odor material in. For instance, if your target material is in a cotton bag, use a clean fresh cotton bag, if your target is in a baggie, use clean fresh baggies for your control.
You will start with just the target odor tube but keep the other tubes where you can get to them, under your chair or on a shelf nearby.
Place your Mannersminder about 8 or 10 feet away from you.
Now you are ready to get started.
Step 1 — Imprint odor
In this first step do not ask or wait for the dog to respond to the target odor. Ideally the dog will encounter target odor and almost immediately you will “beep” to mark the odor and start the feeder. Very quickly the odor will become important to your dog.
Bring your dog into the room and sit down in the chair with the target odor tube.
Most dogs will investigate the Mannersminder. Call your dog and when she turns to you draw her attention to the scent tube by waving it or tapping on it. When she puts her nose in the tube push the “Dispense” button to mark and pay.
From now on make sure you catch her with her nose in the tube when you push the button. The marker will reinforce whatever your dog is doing when she hears it. Make sure her nose is in the tube. The less obvious the odor the more repetitions you need to pay at this level before you go to the next step, but generally, 5 or 6 rewards at this level is enough.
Do not work too long with just one tube. Your dog may think that putting her nose in the tube is what is making the reward happen.
Pay your dog for sniffing the tube. While your dog is at the feeder place the target odor tube on the ground at your feet and place the empty tube on the floor at 2 0’clock so that it is closer to the feeder than the target odor tube.
Stop feeding. When your dog runs to you, she will encounter the empty tube first- Odds are that she will investigate it, putting her nose in the tube. Most dogs hesitate a moment then go on to check out the other tube that contains the target odor. As soon as she puts her nose in the correct tube push the dispense button to mark and pay.
She is discovering that the two tubes are different. The tube that smells funny results in reward.
Do several of these.
Learn to ignore controls and distractions
Add a third tube when your dog is at the Mannersminder. This new tube can be a distraction or a control. Shuffle the placement of the tubes after every find while she is at the feeder. After a few reps with three tubes add the fourth tube if she is searching intently.
With many dogs you can have all four tubes in play before the end of the first session. Continue with four tubes, shuffling the tubes after every find. Change your distractions and controls every session.
Continue to “beep” or mark as soon as your dog puts her nose into the correct tube until you see signs that she recognizes the target odor. When she knows that the odor predicts that the reward is coming you may see a head snap as she is moving near the tube, or she may begin to push harder into the correct tube or wiggle and dance a bit when she finds the target odor.
These signs prove that she is ready for you to begin shaping her response to the target odor. We will talk about that next week.
Please feel free to comment, question or complain.
Young children who are exposed to large amounts of adult speech tend to have better cognitive skills
Date:April 30, 2019Source:University of YorkSummary:A major new study has identified a link between kids who hear high quantities of adult speech and better nonverbal abilities such as reasoning, numeracy and shape awareness.
Read the full report:
from Science Daily
Researchers shed new light on how the brain solidifies important memories
Date:April 29, 2019Source:VIB (the Flanders Institute for Biotechnology)Summary:Scientists have found that highly demanding and rewarding experiences result in stronger memories. By studying navigation in rats, the researchers traced back the mechanism behind this selective memory enhancement to so-called replay processes in the hippocampus, the memory-processing center of the brain.
read the full report:
From Science Daily
Date:April 29, 2019Source:Society for NeuroscienceSummary:Researchers have mapped the activity of individual neurons deep in the brain during sleep and exploration of novel objects in male and female mice. The study suggests these cells may facilitate memory formation.
This is from Science Daily
Date:April 29, 2019Source:Ruhr-University BochumSummary: How sensory perception in the brain affects learning and memory processes is far from fully understood. Neuroscientists have discovered a new aspect of how the processing of odors impacts memory centers. They showed that the piriform cortex — a part of the olfactory brain — has a direct influence on information storage in our most important memory structure, the hippocampus.
for the full story:
This Wednesday at 7 PM EST Connie and I are doing a webinar for our Digital Obedience Guide on E-collar training.
Proven to produce engaged dogs, offering powerful winning performances in the field, the ring and on the street.
The online Guide has written instructions with video illustrations. This short video is from one of the lessons.
The price increases after the webinar. Buy now :
Summary:Less than one hour of brain training with neurofeedback leads to a strengthening of neural connections and communication among brain areas. This is the main finding of a new study. According to the authors, the study may pave the way for the optimization and development of therapeutic approaches against stroke and Parkinson’s, for example.
The Online Instructional Guide is online and ready for sale. You can click on the link below and you will be re-directed to the store page. Once you purchase the guide you will have life time access to the guide and you will receive a link to register for the live webinar.
After the webinar, a recording of the webinar will be added to the guide for those that are unable to attend and for those wanting to review.
When you get to the store you will see two courses offered. The e-collar course looks like the picture below.
I like the Dogtra Handsfree transmitters and had a good time shooting these promotionals
I show early training for off leash detection. Once the dog knows a basic level of detection and basic level of handling I combine the two.
This video shows a dog working basic directionals and basic detection together
Electric Collars – A Forthright Discussion
It’s time for forthright discussion about the use and misuse of electric collars (e-collars). The general public has accepted and embraced their use with underground fence systems, and pet owners are picking them up off the shelf to try to eliminate a variety of unwanted behaviors.
The use of e-collars is commonplace in some venues, for example, retriever trainers doing field work. Yet in other venues the attitude toward the e-collar is one of complete disdain.
Connie’s experiences with e-collars goes back 40 years to a time when they were starting to be used in the field trial game. The rudimentary design was not nearly as sophisticated as the tools we have available today. Connie purchased her first field trial dog in 1995. Since then she has trained five retrievers to a Field or Amateur Field Championship that have also earned Obedience Championships. She has never advocated that an e-collar is necessary to train a competitive obedience dog. However, she would not attempt to train a Field Champion without one.
Connie’s husband, Pat Nolan, trained competitive field trial retrievers for 30-years. Now he uses those skills as well as his knowledge of e-collars, to do research and consulting, primarily for the Department of Defense. He also teaches seminars for police, military and retriever sports.
What is an Electric Collar?
Electric collar is a term used in order to describe a family of training collars that deliver electrical stimulation of varying intensity and duration to the dog via a radio-controlled electronic device. This article is about e-collars that are operated by the trainer, using a transmitter. The trainer controls when the dog feels the electric stimulation by pushing a button on the transmitter.
Why would you use an Electric Collar?
Whether your goal is to have a well-mannered pet, or a good obedience or agility dog, you may never have a reason to use an e-collar. However, if your lifestyle demands completely reliable off-leash control, or if you have a dog that is frequently unreliable off-leash, the e-collar may be the right tool for you.
An e-collar should never be used out of anger or frustration at a dog’s inability to perform. Appropriately using an e-collar involves teaching the dog how to respond to the stimulation. If you are ever going to do anything to your dog that he will find unpleasant, it is your job to teach him how to control it. You must teach your dog how to respond to the stimulation the collar delivers. This needs to be done in a step-by-step fashion that teaches the dog how to stop the stimulation when it occurs and how to prevent the stimulation in the future.
Sadly, we live in an impatient world that wants immediate results, whether it is money from the ATM, food at the drive through, or an obedient dog in one training session. It is disturbing to think that any owner would, in his frustration, put an e-collar on a disobedient dog, and simply push the button when he fails to respond to a command. A thoughtful trainer understands that one of the ways a dog learns is by being shown what direction you want him to move. A dog learning how to control e-collar stimulation must be shown how to make it stop and how to prevent it from happening again.
Teaching a dog how to control e-collar stimulation does not need to be complicated. Just as your dog has learned how to earn rewards and praise, he can learn how to control the stimulation from the e-collar.
Together, Pat and Connie are preparing information for you to discuss the reasons for and against using an e-collar. They will discuss whether it should be used to solve a problem or as part of a complete training program. The difference between enforcing commands and stopping unwanted behavior, and most importantly, how and why using it incorrectly creates backlash.
They are planning a webinar on April 24 @ 7:00 pm to discuss the electric collar.
French scientists say they have proof that dogs can pick up the smell of an epileptic seizure.
This article was published in the BBC Health section click this link to read the full text
The University of Rennes team hope the findings could lead to ways to predict when people will have a seizure.
These could include dogs or “electronic noses” that pick up the precise odour being given off during a seizure.
Dogs have previously been shown to be able to sniff out diseases including cancers, Parkinson’s, malaria and diabetes.
- Epilepsy is caused by disruption to the electrical signals in the brain causing seizures
- The disease can run in families or be caused by a stroke or oxygen deprivation at birth
Some people with epilepsy already rely on the animals.
Giulio Tononi’s “integrated information theory” might solve neuroscience’s biggest puzzle
- By David Robson published in the BBC
27 March 2019
Can a lobster feel pain in the same way as you or I?
We know that they have the same sensors – called nociceptors – that cause us to flinch or cry when we are hurt. And they certainly behave like they are sensing something unpleasant. When a chef places them in boiling water, for instance, they twitch their tails as if they are in agony.
But are they actually “aware” of the sensation? Or is that response merely a reflex?
When you or I perform an action, our minds are filled with a complex conscious experience. We can’t just assume that this is also true for other animals, however – particularly ones with such different brains from our own. It’s perfectly feasible – some scientists would even argue that it’s likely – that a creature like a lobster lacks any kind of internal experience, compared to the rich world inside our head.
“With a dog, who behaves quite a lot like us, who is in a body which is not too different from ours, and who has a brain that is not too different from ours, it’s much more plausible that it sees things and hears things very much like we do, than to say that it is completely ‘dark inside’, so to speak,” says Giulio Tononi, a neuroscientist at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. “But when it comes down to a lobster, all bets are off.”
The question of whether other brains – quite alien to our own – are capable of awareness, is just one of the many conundrums
Musical training improves the ability to tune out distractions, and the more training, the better the control, study finds
Researchers explore how the auditory system achieves accurate speech recognition
Sound sense: Brain ‘listens’ for distinctive features in sounds
What are they? Why are they important to us as dog trainers?
The information in this video is a bit incomplete. However, I am using this a starting point for a discussion. I will be working on this discussion in the next couple of posts.
Push Pull Training in Drive offers Clear Communication and Conflict-free dog training resulting in a powerful enthusiastic performance from a fully engaged training partner.
This video shows a dog working under control with multiple rewards available that is perfectly willing to accept direction and work with me.
There is no conflict, he is happy, fully engaged in the training lesson, and yet under tight verbal control.
I will be sharing more on how to get the same enthusiastic work and control with your dog.
I am sending out weekly updates on Tuesday mornings. If you have signed up and are not receiving them, check your spam folder. I think you can list the emails as “not spam” and they should go through.
A conversation on using the E-collar to push for
My wife (Connie Cleveland-Nolan) and I are working on an updated e-collar course. I will be posting about our program and progress here. The following is paraphrased from the obedience manual I offer for sale on Amazon.
If you have questions or comments about using the e-collar leave a comment below. I’d like to hear from you.
Every dog perceives the stimulation from the e-collar slightly differently. To use the e-collar to push for desired behavior you will first you need to find a good starting point for the intensity setting.
As training progresses and your dog’s drive state and the distraction level of the environment changes you will need to work up and down on the intensity setting dial to get and keep your dog focused on training.
The ideal setting is high enough that your dog notices the e-collar but is not so high that it upsets him.
|Objective 1 — Find the right initial e-collar setting for your dog|
Bring your dog from confinement to your training area. She should be wearing her e-collar and another collar, either a flat buckle or slip-type collar. Attach a 15-foot line to this collar and not the e-collar. Allow your dog to relax and explore her surroundings.
With the e-collar on your lowest intensity setting, push the “Nick” button to “tap” your dog. You may see no reaction. Now continue to “tap” at random, increasing the intensity setting each time. Watch carefully, as the first signs that your dog notices the e-collar are usually subtle. When they first feel the e-collar some dogs stop and look up; others may turn to look over their shoulder or shake their head; some sit and scratch at the collar.
When you see that your dog has noticed the tap, stop increasing the intensity setting. After a short pause, repeat a few taps at this setting to make sure that your dog did, in fact, notice the e-collar. If he did, this will be the introductory or teaching setting for your dog. (Occasionally, once the dog realizes that he feels something from the e-collar you can reduce the setting; do not reduce below the level that your dog responds to.)
The most effective intensity setting for teaching with the e-collar is one that is just high enough that your dog notices the e-collar, but not so high that he shows any panic or distress. If panicked by the e-collar stimulation, reduce the setting; if he shows no reaction, increase the setting.
This video is 10 or 11 years old. Connie and I are shooting new video now for an online e-collar course. I will be sharing new video clips as we go.
In detection training as in many projects in life, it is important
I want a detection dog that is self-motivated and is operating independently under direction.
I want to be able to direct the dog to a distant objective to search.
With these two goals in mind, I want to develop handling skills and detection skills at the same time.
Directionals and detection are taught separately and then combined. When the dog knows a basic
This video shows a dog learning a new odor working off leash on a carousel I built to hold 8 Ray Allen scent boxes. If I remember correctly each box is 30 inches from the center of the carousel and all boxes are 24 inches apart.
I often start with a remote feeder. When the dog goes to the feeder it gives you time to rotate the wheel. Here I am delivering the reward by hand. We start eh session on food reward and end up with tug reward.
With the carousel, the dog works independently from the first day of
I had a great time meeting and training with everyone this weekend in Marion, NY. Special thanks to Debra Zappia of ProFormance K9 for hosting the event and Tim Vaillancourt for all his help.
This video shows the construction of the scent tube carousel. This water heater pan measures 26 inches inside
A trained detection canine must be discriminate and selective. She must identify
There are many ways to accomplish these goals. One method I like uses scent tubes, a carousel, and a Mannersminder. The scent tubes contain controls, distractions, and one target odor. When the pup/dog alerts you “Mark” the behavior and start the feeder. When the Mannersminder pulls the dog away from the carousel you can rotate the carousel moving the target to a new position.
We just held a seminar on nose work at our kennel in Fountain Inn.
We had a good turn out and a good time, I will post some pictures and videos clips.
We had quite a few questions on how to build the scent tubes.
I created the scent tubes in the plumbing aisle of our local Lowe’s home improvement store over 10 years ago. I have made five short videos to show you how I build them.
I needed something that could hold target materials, distractions, and controls that was sturdy enough to protect the dogs from the materials, and that would protect the materials from reward/food bits and dog slobber.
I wanted something that was easily clean. Easy to make, didn’t require a lot of machine work.
I wanted something small enough for training the puppies. It turns out it is large enough for working big dogs too.
There are several shops selling different versions online now so if you don’t want to make your own you can buy them.
But, if you have any interest in building your own watch these short videos. At a minimum, you will need a Drill, a small bit for vent holes and a hole saw. I build mine without a drill press and without a vise.
You can download a parts and tools list by clicking here.
Building Play Retrieve Drive
Whether you are raising a pup for hunting or competition, or you simply want to play Frisbee with the family dog, the play retrieve provides a fun outlet for exercise, is useful for rewarding the dog in training, and lays a foundation for advanced training.
Almost all dogs have some natural interest in retrieving. Your job is to bring that out and develop it to a high degree. Daily play retrieving sessions can begin as soon as you bring your pup home from the litter at around eight weeks.
Just remember that your puppy’s attention span is very short, so end each session while your pup wants more — don’t keep going until she gets tired of the game. These methods work with grown dogs, too.
Typically, pups will show one of three different responses when introduced to retrieving. Some pups will chase a thrown or rolled object but not pick it up; some will chase it, pick it up, and run away with it; and a very few will chase it, pick it up, and return it to you. Most of the well-bred retrievers I have started as pups would chase and pick up; very few would actually return something to me at first. These actions make up the components of a retrieve.
Your puppy’s initial response shows you what you need to work on, and in what order, to develop a full retrieve in the pup. First, you need to stimulate the desire to chase. Once your pup will chase, you need to find an object your pup wants to possess or carry. And finally, you need to teach your pup to bring the object back to you. We will work on each segment individually and try to keep them in balance.
Stimulate the chase or prey drive in your pup
Restrain your pup and tease her with a rolled sock or tennis ball and when she is trying hard to grab it, roll it out about two feet in front of her and let her go. If the pup runs to chase it, great; repeat several times. Sometimes an odd-shaped toy that bounces unpredictably will excite a pup. Alternately, allow the pup to run loose as you drag a sock or ball on a string in front of her to tease her and when she is excited, toss or roll the object low and out in front her. Remember, your pup’s vision is not fully developed at eight weeks so if you toss too high or too far your pup will lose sight of the object. Your teasing and a little tug a war should stimulate the pup’s prey drive and encourage your pup to chase what you throw.
Now that your pup’s chasing, find something he wants to pick up
If your pup will chase but doesn’t pick up what you are throwing, throw something else. You may have to try several different objects until you find one your pup likes to pick up and carry. If your pup is not interested in your new store-bought puppy bumpers, try squeaky toys, knotted socks, or Kong toys. Some pups like empty plastic soda bottles with some of the air squeezed out and the lid put back on. If you cannot find a toy the pup likes, let the pup pick something out. Just watch your pup and see what he is getting into around the house. I have started a couple of pups retrieving my old shoes. Once they get into the game you can switch them to objects you want him to retrieve.
When he will chase and pick up, teach your pup to return to you
With all pups, work on teaching your pup to come to you when called in sessions separate from the retrieving sessions. Food treats work well with most pups for teaching a quick recall. Sometimes if you place the pup on the ground in a new area and run away calling to him, the pup will come to you. In addition to using treats to get your pup to return to you, watch where he goes when he runs off with his thrown toy. Many pups will try to run to a safe spot with their toy when they pick it up. Some will return to their bed or doggie mat. Work with that. Sit on the floor near the dog bed and throw his first retrieves. When he returns to the bed you can praise and reward him with a treat for the good retrieve. Now, this is important: do not grab and take the toy from your pup as soon as he returns. If you do this, he is not going to want to return to you. Instead, when the pup returns, get a hold of him and praise or treat him, but let him keep the toy. When he gives it up you can throw it again. You can also work with two toys. Once your pup returns and he has had a chance to enjoy your praise for that retrieve, tease him with the second; when he drops the first toy you can throw the next.
When should you teach your pup to wait for a command to retrieve?
If you find you have a physically tough pup with very high retrieving drive, begin to teach your pup to wait for your cue to go as soon as he is retrieving and really into the game. Hold the pup in a sit until he stops struggling before you cue and release him to retrieve. He will learn that sitting calmly brings the opportunity to retrieve, thrashing wildly doesn’t. A more sensitive pup with soft or medium retrieve drive doesn’t need early practice waiting to be sent. Let this pup go for the retrieve as soon as you throw as it helps build his drive.
What about birds and the hunting pup?
Birdyness and retrieving desire are two different things. If you are raising a retriever for hunting you need to develop both. Make sure you introduce your dog to birds right away, preferably before he is 12 weeks old. Once he shows interest in the birds, throw some bird marks for him from time to time as he grows up as long as he is not too rough with them. If he gets too rough, put the birds away until after force fetch. With a little effort and a few minutes of play each day you can teach your pup to retrieve. A solid play retrieve offers a fun way to get good exercise and helps build a close working relationship with your pup. You and your pup will reap the benefits throughout his whole life.
This is an old video but shows a puppy that was started in my program.
The puppy is ignoring distractions in the room and on the training rack, working to the source, and staying on odor. Not a polished final but a good start.
Pat Nolan will be conducting a 1-day training seminar on Scent Work at Dog Trainers Workshop, 207 Greenpond Road-Fountain Inn, SC 29644.
When: Saturday, February 9, 8:30am-4:30pm
We will cover;
1. What it means to “imprint odor.”
2. Why you do it.
3. How to do it.
4. Increasing your dog’s search intensity.
5. Increasing the length and difficulty of the search.
6. Introducing a final response (how the dog indicates that he has located odor)
7. Building duration on the final response- meaning the dog does not leave odor but remains in the odor source until rewarded.
Limited to 20 working spots ($120) |
Auditors welcome ($40)
Call Tracy at (864) 862-8626 (M-F) to register or email at email@example.com.
May 20, 2019 @ 8:00 am – May 24, 2019 @ 5:00 pm
Law Enforcement only